Diabetes known as diabetes mellitus is a hormonal imbalance that affects our pancreas and causes high blood sugar in our blood stream. Generally whatever we eat it converts into glucose known as sugar and released into the blood and whenever it reaches high levels brain signals to the pancreas to release the insulin and control the sugar. An optimum level of blood sugar gives energy to the body and keeps the body active.
Now if you have diabetes your pancreas will not work properly and will not release the insulin in adequate quantity which leads to an increase in blood sugar level which may lead to serious health conditions like kidney, heart and liver failure and vision loss.
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes is a metabolic disease that cause high blood sugar in your bloodstream if it is not treated with insulin with the help of the pancreas naturally. Generally pancreas releases the insulin into blood to control the level of sugar and move the additional sugar to cells to store for further use as energy.
There are three types of diabetes:-
Type 1 Diabetes- Type I diabetes is caused by when our body immune system attacks mistakenly to the parts of the pancreas where the insulin is made. This resulted in an interruption in insulin production and causes type I diabetes. Symptoms of this type of diabetes is acute and it attacks children, teens and young adults.
Type 2 Diabetes- Type 2 diabetes is the most commonly type of diabetes which is found in nearly 80 percent of patients who suffers from diabetes. It is generally caused when your body resistant to insulin and your body cannot keep the blood sugar level at optimum levels. It is diagnosed with persons who are adults. Type 2 diabetes generally develops very slowly and the person don’t know about it.
Gestational Diabetes- Gestational Diabetes develops in pregnant women who have had never suffered from diabetes. This diabetes may cause severe health problems in the growing baby. Gestational diabetes cures on its own and resolves when a baby born but may cause type 2 diabetes at later age.
Symptoms of Diabetes
The symptoms of type I diabetes is as follows
Fatigue and Weakness
Symptoms of type 2 Diabetes
Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes- Mostly women do not face any problem of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Some women may face thirst and frequent urination. The diagnosis is made for gestational diabetes is to test urine and blood sugar. It is generally performed between 24 to 28 weeks.
Causes of Diabetes
There are different cause for each of the types of Diabetes
Type I Diabetes- This kind of Diabetes doctors still have to unravel the exact cause but it is said that when our immune system attacks on the pancreas mistakenly, pancreas affected by the attack and the production of insulin is interrupted.
Type 2 Diabetes– There are different causes for every peoples. Some have gene problem which comes with their family persons like father mother and some have lifestyle changes which causes type 2 diabetes. People who are obese and having a belly are at greater risk of having diabetes. A person who eats unhealthy food which contains high cholesterol may also contribute to increasing blood sugar.
Gestational Diabetes– Hormonal changes during pregnancy cause gestational diabetes. In pregnancy the placenta produces hormones that affects insulin and it makes cells less sensitive to insulin.
Diagnosis of Diabetes
There are various methods to diagnose diabetes is available. Each test requires blood and with the help of blood your glucose level is shown. There are various methods which are as follows:-
The FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) test is used when you fast for 8 hours and then checks for blood sugar levels with help of blood.
The A1C test measures the average of three months blood sugar in your blood.
A random Blood sugar test is the test when you checks the sugar randomly without any preparation like fasting etc which tells you about your glucose level in your blood.
Complications in Diabetes
Diabetes causes many complications to the patients as high blood sugar causes a lot of disease. Diabetes is not only a disease but it causes a lot of problems and disease to the patients.
These complications are as follows-
Hear Problems Like heart attack, Stroke and Heart Damage
Nerve damage (Neuropathy)
Increased risks of Fungal and Bacterial Infections
Treatment of Diabetes
There are various medicines and injections available to treat diabetes.These are as follow:-
Type I Diabetes– Insulin is the main drug of treatment of type I diabetes. It is fast acting and effective. Various types of insulin are available, and most are coined by how long their effect lasts. There are rapid, regular, intermediate, and long-acting insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes- Type 2 Diabetes may be controlled by exercise, maintaining optimum body weight and diet. If by doing so sugar is not control you need to take medications as per the need.
Gestational Diabetes- Gestational diabetes does not require any medication if it is a little bit more than normal. Regular monitoring may be required to monitor blood sugar in a day. If it is high dietary changes and light exercise may help but if it is not controlling then insulin may be required to control it. Insulin is the safest way to control the blood sugar without harming the baby.
How to Control Diabetes
Type I diabetes is not controllable but type 2 diabetes is controllable with exercise, a healthy diet and fitness. There are few steps that may help in controlling diabetes.
Regular exercise may help you to regulate your blood sugar level. Exercise means not only exercising but you may choose cycling, walking with light speed and swimming whatever you like you may choose. By exercising your sugar levels will be under the limit.
Some people do exercise when they diagnosed with diabetes but later they leave to do so resulted in increase in blood sugar randomly.
Avoid foods that contains high saturated and sugary products as they cause a rise in sugar levels. Eat healthy food which is high in calorie low in cholesterol. Most people knows only that potato, rice causes sugar increase but keeps in mind that wheat flour chapatis also causes rise in sugar levels if you have diabetes.
Maintain good weight and avoid long sitting positions which causes diabetes. Diabetes chances increases whose weight is more than normal range.
Avoid excessive eating rather than eat small parts in multiple times. This will help in controlling blood sugar level.
Try to loose weight of your body at least 8 percent.
Don’t stay hungry for a long time.
Avoid packaged and ready to eat foods that contains saturated and trans fat.