Blood Pressure: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Reviewed by Dr Hasan Feroz, M.D.


Blood pressure is the pressure of circulating blood against the blood vessels. Your blood pressure readings are just like 120/80 or something like that if you check your blood pressure. it means your BP is 120 in systolic means upper readings while 80 is diastolic means lower bp.

It is explained in simple term which is when your heart pumps blood during one heartbeat how much pressure is being used is called systolic blood pressure while the resting of your heart between two heartbeat is called diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured in mmHg which means millimetres of mercury.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is considered when your blood pressure reached the levels where it is considered unhealthy. High blood pressure is called hypertension where the arteries of your blood is narrowing down which causes resistance to circulating blood resulted in an increased blood pressure.

Hypertension is quite common in every age group ranges from 18 years and above. Nearly 20 percent of the population in the world has been suffering from high blood pressure. High BP takes several years to develop in any person and the person is not aware of it that i am suffering from high bp.

In Most of cases it is found that undiagnosed BP causes a lot of harm to the patients as it destroys the eyes kidney, brain and arteries.

Causes of High Blood Pressure

There are several reasons which elevate blood pressure. But in some peoples there is no cause of blood pressure but they are affected by the blood pressure. Researchers are also doubtful about the exact cause of this kind of high blood pressure which increases gradually and the person is not aware of it.

Also, some peoples have genetically found the blood pressure from their father and mother. For example, If someone father’s or mother’s have high bp then there will be more chance to get bp in their children also. Lifestyle and food habits are also caused high bp in the person if someone lives healthy lifestyle and takes care of foods, do regular exercises always remain safer side and have very lesser chance to get high bp.

While the persons who do not follow healthy lifestyle rule are more prone to get high bp. In Most of the developing and developed countries it is found that most of the adults as well as kids are getting obese nowadays the reason behind this is unhealthy food, poor diet and their limited mobility.

The adolescent ages to adult ages peoples are having fast foods so much which consist of high fat, cholesterol and a lot of chemical in them which resulted in increasing blood pressure and narrowing their blood vessels.

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

The symptoms of high bp do not evolve as early as in other diseases. Most of the peoples came to know when they went for regular check up at their doctor’s clinic and randomly they came to know that they are suffering from hypertension. The symptoms of hypertension are as follows:-

  • Chest Pain
  • Headache
  • Nose Bleeding
  • Heaviness In chest
  • Breathlessness in running or too much walking
  • Dizziness

If someone is facing these problems he/she must have to consult their physician. If you have a family background of heart disease, high bp you need to check your bp regularly if you crossed the age of 30. because if you have bp and it is undiagnosed yet there may be the chances of kidney failure, eyes damage and stroke.

Diagnosis of Blood Pressure

Diagnosis of blood pressure is only with help of blood pressure monitor machine called a sphygmomanometer. Your doctor may check your bp and the level of bp is high he may call you for next two to five days to know the actual bp. on the basis of your average readings you will be sent for some pathological tests which will confirm your hypertension.

How to Interpret Blood Pressure Readings

As per the American heart institution the normal BP is less than 120/80 mmHg while more than 120 and upto 129 and diastolic is less than 80 is considered elevated. If bp is 130 to 139 systolic and 80 to 89 diastolic is considered as high blood pressure known as hypertension stage 1 and hypertension stage 2 is 140 or higher and 90 or higher will be considered as hypertension stage 2.

Hypertensive crisis is 180 or more and higher than 120 will be considered as a high risky and should seek immediate medical emergency.

Treatment of Hypertension

Your treating doctor will decide what kind of medicines is required to control your hypertension. If you are diagnosed with primary bp you may suggested to change your lifestyle and control your diet. If you are diagnosed with secondary hypertension your doctor may prescribe drugs that controls blood pressure which includes calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers and ace inhibitors. Some doctors may prescribe you diuretics that lowers the diastolic blood pressure also known as water pills.

How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

There are various ways to prevent high blood pressure if one has to remain fit in their future life. These steps are as follows:-

  • Eat Healthy Food
  • Quit Smoking
  • Take Low Cholesterol Foods
  • Limit the Intake of Red Meat
  • Do Regular Exercise
  • Cover Small Distances with Cycling or Walking
  • Use Stairs instead of Lift
  • Don’t Take Alcohol
  • Physically Active
  • Check your HDL and LDL levels Regularly
  • Take Ample Sleep

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