Urinary Tract Infection:Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Reviewed by Dr Hasan Feroz M.D. written By Dr Mohammad Osama

Urinary tract infection (uti) is caused by the bacteria known as micro organism which enters in our urinary system through the intestine or from other external sources. This micro organism is too small that we cannot see them with naked eyes.it is only possible with the help of a microscope. Most of the uti is caused by bacteria but in some cases, it is also caused by fungi and rarely caused by the viruses.

UTI is very common infection among females but it also occurs in men. Our urinary system consist of 4 organs like kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. UTI may affect all these four organs but it is commonly affects our bladder and urethra.

Symptoms of UTI

If someone suffers from urinary tract infection he or she may experience problems which are as follows:-

  • Burning pain and sensation
  • Dysuria
  • Difficulty in urination
  • Foul and smelly urine
  • Dark color urine
  • Blood in urine
  • Pelvic pain in women/Abdominal pain in men/backpain
  • Frequent urination
  • Feeling of bladder is not fully empty after urination
  • Low grade fever

Causes of UTI

There are various factors affecting the urinary system which may cause uti. These factors may be life threatening when uti is not properly treated.These factors are as follows:-

  • Kidney Stones
  • Previous Uti
  • Weak Immune system
  • Pregnancy
  • Enlarged Prostate
  • Poor Genital hygiene
  • Old age
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Prolonged use of the indwelling catheter
  • Urine incontinence
  • Low water intake

UTI Diagnosis

If you are suffering from urinary symptoms which mentioned above you have to visit your doctor he will examine you properly and asked for urine routine examination. On the basis of urine routine examination one can reach to the results that whether there is uti or not.

Urine culture is a microbiological investigation in which your urine is cultured, if urine culture is positive then it means your urine has bacteria and the bacteria will be killed by which medicines,culture report specifies, and which antibiotics are best suitable for you with sensitivity.

UTI Treatment

Treatment of uti is depended upon the cause of uti. Your doctor will determine which medicine is better for you. Generally uti caused by the bacteria, It is treated by the antibiotics and if it is caused by the fungi, anti-fungal drug can be given.

Drugs generally used in the treatment of uti are norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin sulphate, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, fosfomycin etc. There are alot of drugs that are used to treat the uti. If the uti is chronic it may take longer than usual time to recover.

Generally, drugs used to treat uti continues to 7-10 days but in some cases, it takes 21-28 days long to treat the uti infection.

How to avoid UTI

Uti is generally avoid with the help of certain precautions that helps to reduce the risk of uti. There is no any home remedies available to treat uti but it can be avoided with the help of certain precautions which are as follows:-

  • Eat vitamin C enriched fruits
  • Take plenty of water
  • Maintain good genital hygiene
  • Take cranberries juices
  • Urinate when you feel an urge
  • Include probiotics in your food like curd
  • Avoid unnecessary intake of antibiotics that makes bacteria resistant against most of the antibiotics

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  1. Pingback: Cranberry Benefits

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