What is Antibiotics


Reviewed by Dr.Hasan Feroz M.D. Pharmacology written by Dr Mohammad Osama

An antibiotic is a kind of antimicrobial (it is an agent that kills microorganism or stop their growth)drug acts against bacteria.it is most important types of anti bacterial agent to fight against bacterial infections.

Today antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of bacterial infections.Antibiotics does not works on viral infections like common cold and flu and also it does not works on viruses,fungus but upto certain extent it works on some protozoa.


Antibiotics are used to treat variety of bacterial as well as some protozoan infections.If you have any suspected infection in your body your doctor may prescribe the antibiotics after proper examination of blood tests.If the suspected bacteria is not known the prescribes broad spectrum of antibiotics which covers wide variety of bacteria like gram positive and gram negative.

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance occurs when the excess use of antibiotics is used to treat any infection.Most of the infection does not go away easily and patient uses different different types of antibiotics which resulted in resistance.Now question arises how this happens?the answer is when someone takes the antibiotics the bacteria does not die with the drugs and it does not work on the bacteria this is called antibiotic resistance.

Some facts about antibiotics

  • First antibiotic were discovered by Alexender Fleming was pencillin in 1928,the oldest antibiotic in the world.
  • Fleming also discovered the term antibiotic resistance.
  • Antibiotics kills the bacteria or stop the growth of bacteria which results the death of bacteria.
  • Every antibiotics has some side effects which may go away after discontinuation of drug.

How it works

There are various types of antibiotics available but the working of every antibiotics are either two types like:-

A Bactericidal

A Bacteriostatic

Bactericidal antibiotics works by killing the bacteria while bacteriostatic works by stopping the growth of bacteria which resulted in the form of death of bacteria.

Side effects of antibiotics

There are certain side effects of every antibiotics which are as follows:-

  • Diarrhea
  • Dry mouth
  • Stomach Pain
  • Tarry Stool
  • Vertigo and Headache
  • Blurred eye vision
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Tendon pain
  • Itching and rashes
  • Fungal Infections
  • Jaundice
  • Vaginal Bleeding
  • Indigestion and bloating
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Thinking of Suicide

Types of Antibiotics

Pencillins-For Examples Phenoxymethylpenicillin,Flucloxacillin and amoxicillin.

Cephalosporins- For example Cefadroxil and cefalexin.

Tetracyclines- For example tetracycline,doxycycline,lymecycline,minocycline,tygecycline.

Macrolids- For example Erythromycin,Azithromycin and Clarithromycin.

Metronidazole and Tinidazole.

Aminoglycosides-For example Gentamicin,Amikacin.

Nitrofurantoin-Used to treat UTI.

Instead of these antibiotics there are several antibiotics which are not above mentioned like TB drugs which are also antibiotics but these are prescribed by its specialist doctors or hospitals and its duration of its treatment varies from 6 months to 24 Months depending upon the type and location of the disease.

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